We have been teaching about Inquiry-based learning (IBL) a while and practicing it ourselves. Students in teacher education at the University of Agder have experienced IBL themselves and some try to put it into practice. We have developed four short videos visualizing what IBL entails in the classroom practice. An article based on the development of these videos has been submitted to the online journal NorDiNA. The title is: Designing Videos on Inquiry-Based Learning for use in Teacher Education – Investigating and Exploring Design Principles the Design Principles. Those who wish to use theory on IBL and references to previous research for their own work, please download (and reference) the following document.
Juggling is fun, it’s a nice break, you can do it anywhere, and at any level. If you do not have juggling balls, you can easily make them yourself. See the video below or search YouTube for more examples. Some use rice, others flour. We experienced that making juggling balls from (old) tennis balls is the easiest and gives the best result.
Now you can start juggling. First a video for young kids and thereafter more technical video on how to learn juggling.
Juggling, just like training any physical activity, changes the brain. Read The Art of Changing the Brain or Juggling Boosts the Brain (Nature, 2004). We do not wish to spoil the game, but there is mathematics in juggling. See Math is in the air.
An outdoor workout or boot-camp is a good alternative for the gym, especially in times of corona. Research claims that being physically active every day, has a positive influence on your brain and on cognitive work. Many physical breaks have a larger effect than one workout. Read for example Mike Kuczala’s book The Kinestetic Classroom. Training together is more motivating and more fun. For younger kids exercise should be a game. There are may ways to be active outdoors. Here two suggestions, a video and a program in visualized in pictures. See also the blog about Juggling.
Why do we use maps? How can we present the globe in two dimensions? What challenges do we face?
Start with one of the first two videos and then move on to the second one. The latter is spoken fast and uses a wide, scientific vocabulary.
The only correct representation of the world is a globe. Every projection serves a specific purpose. It’s interesting to explore the different projections and their use and purpose throughout history. It appears that projections and perpectives change over time and place and are culturally bound.
To get a good impression use the tool ‘The True Size‘. This tool makes it possible to drag a chosen country over the world and compare its (true) size with that of other countries. Visit the website https://thetruesize.com
This topic can be addressed from many different angles: geography, politics. history, mathematics, ethics….
Research in Asia shows that in the big cities 90% of the students leaving school have to wear spectacles due to myopia (nearsightedness). The reasons given are too much hard work for school, far too little exposure to daylight, and lack of time spent outdoors.
Recent research in The Netherlands shows a steep increase in myopia (nearsightedness) among 20 year old students (Klaver, 2017). Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. In 1990 only 5% of the school leavers in The Netherlands suffered from myopia. In 2017 this has risen to 50%, and this is likely to increase. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. Myopia developed in childhood cannot be reversed.
The main reasons given for the steep increase is the frequent use of social media on smartphones and iPads, and og computers in general. Children use their eyes too one-sided, namely for nearsight mainly. This results in eyes that change shape to accomodate for this effort. Another negative side-effect of the use of digital devices is the fact that the eyes become too dry. We blink only 10% of the normal amount when watching at a screen.
Other causes, related to the use of digital devices, are a decrease in hours spent outdoors and the decrease in exposure to daylight. In childhood the eyes need both daylight and the exposure to farsightedness.
How can we reverse the myopia epidemic?
Researchers and experts on eyesight have developed a rule-of thumb.
20-20-220 minutes working on a screen
Take a break of at least 20 seconds
Spend at least 2 hours a day outdoors
Additional smart rules for parents and teachers to prevent myopia and other eye problems are:
- Young children (< 6) should not work more than 20-30 minutes a day on a screen.
- The SmartBoards in classrooms should be turned off regularly.
DiScoro writes about inquiry-based learning, digital resources, and ways to encourage higher-order thinking. We focus on STEM education and the use of technology.
This time we write about Technology & Design as a school subject or project for students (grade 6 to 10). In several countries Technology and Design has become a school subject.
Most commonly students work on a task during more than one hour. The tasks are interdisciplinary and require many different skills: planning, sketching, creativity, safety, use of tools, research , construction, experimentation etc.
Technology is not limited to the use of digital technology. Technology & Design tasks have a strong practical component and aim at problem solving skills. By nature the tasks are often low floor-high ceiling tasks. This implies that it is clearly understandable what the goal is, all students are able to get started (low floor). At the same time the tasks offer enough challenges and opportunities to dive deeper both in creativity as well as in complexity (high ceiling).
To make a plan is usually a step in the process. It is up to the teacher to ask for a report of the process or not. This can be written, visual, oral, with the use of multi-media (photos, video) or a combination.
Topics that could be part of Technology & Design are
- coding/programming, see also the blogs about Logo Turtle Academy and Scratch.
- programming with mechanics and the use of sensors – LEGO Mindstorms
- industrial design
- design and create a rocking horse for children age 2-3
- make a piece of household furniture using recycled materials
- make a gripper stick for waste picking, or for elderly people at their homes
- engineering (using concepts from chemistry and physics)
- graphic design, (interior design) and art
Pair programming is a part of eXtreme Programming, an agile system development methodology. In Pair Programming two programmers sit together behind one computer. One is coding and the other reviews while communicating about the best solutions. The programmers frequently changes roles. Findings from different sources show that de results of the products contain less errors, are of a higher quality, and cost less man hours !
Research in the industry as well as in class indicates that starting programmers and students who practise pair programming are more confident and learn from each other tips on programming language, and design skills. Girls show a higher interest in the subject when pair programming is used in class.
Children (and many adults) learn much more when they work together on one PC. This is not only because two people see and know more than one, but because working in pairs demands (verbal) communication, which is crucial for learning and understanding. Children do also benefit from working in pairs on one PC or iPad when working on programs and tasks that require problem solving skills.
Examples of activities on a computer that require problem solving skills:
Literature/research on Pair Programming:
Williams, L. et all. (2002). In Support of Pair Programming in the Introductory Computer Science Course. Computer Science Education, Vol. 12, Issue 3.
“Student pairs are more self-sufficient which reduces their reliance on the teaching staff. Qualitatively, paired students demonstrate higher order thinking skills than students who work alone.”
Liebenberg, J. , Mentz, E. & Breed, B. (2013). Pair programming and secondary school girls’ enjoyment of programming and the subject Information Technology. Computer Science Education. Vol. 22, Issue 3.
“Girls’ motivating for (programming and) computer science was much higher when they were allowed to work in pair. Girls’ confidence in the subject was higher in the pair programming classes.”
“A critical mass of girls is required to make girls enjoy and choose computer science and careers. Pair programming is an important means to reach that goal.”
Pair Programming with kids, adolescents? Read the blogs and use one of the following programs: